On the night of 9 November 1938, it became open. The destruction of European Jewry had begun with Kristallnacht, Night of the Broken Glass, the nation-wide pogrom against the Jews of Germany and Austria. Over the next 48 hours, firemen would be standing idly by just to make sure the fires didn’t spread past the synagogues, and the police would be helping the rioters. Seventy-eight years ago, the entire world faced one of history’s great moral tests. And it failed miserably.